Skiing is a standard Olympic sport at the Winter Olympics. Skiing disciplines are divided into alpine, Nordic and ski jumping. Although there are relay races in Nordic skiing, skiing is mostly an individual sport. Ski sports often include snowboarding, which has also been included in the family of Olympic sports since 1998. The equipment for that sport is significantly different from the skiing equipment in that not two skis are used, but one board, i.e. a ski board on which the board stands in a similar position as in surfing the waves.

Alpine competitive skiing disciplines are: slalom, giant slalom, downhill, super-giant slalom, alpine combination and parallel competitions. Unofficially, they could be categorized into technical (slalom and giant slalom) and speed (downhill and super-giant slalom) disciplines. All rules and the organization and control of ski competitions are under the administration of the International Ski Federation (FIS) based in Bern, (Switzerland).

Nordic disciplines, also known as cross-country skiing, are practiced on different track lengths, in two basic categories: classic style and free style. One variant of cross-country skiing is biathlon, in which cross-country skiing is combined with archery.

Ski flights are performed on specially prepared ski jumps, and the goal is to achieve the longest possible jump length with additional marks for style.

Snowboarding is performed in several different disciplines. Alpine disciplines include e.g. slalom races, and are held on standard ski slopes. However, the more popular disciplines are freestyle or freeride, which can take place in special halfpipe courses or on unregulated slopes. Freestyle competitors usually gather and compete in extreme sports games called X-games.